Rift Valley Fever (in short RVF) is caused by one type of virus that gets transmitted by mosquitoes as well as various blood-feeding flies. Basically, animals (specifically sheet and cattle) are get affected by Rift Valley Fever, however, humans can also become victims of RVF. In human beings, Rift Valley Fever can range from a mild flu-like health issue to acute haemorrhagic fever that might be fatal. Whenever livestock get infected by RVF, it can be a matter of huge economic losses because of the high rate of mortality in young animals and the number of abortions in pregnant animals.
How does Rift Valley Fever Transmit?
Individuals get infected with the virus of Rift Valley Fever (RVFV) via the contact with body fluids, blood, or body tissues of animals infected with RVFV and specifically the farm animals. Another worth considering the fact is that the direct contact with the affected animals can happen in times of veterinary methods, such as providing assistance to the animal in the birth procedure. Infection can also occur through breathing within droplets that are contaminated with RVFV (also called aerosol transmission). It basically occurs within the setting of the laboratory.
Individuals can hardly be infected with RVF Virus from the bites of mosquitoes, infected by Rift Valley Fever and also from other biting insects, having RVFV on their mouthparts. However, spreading RVF from person to person has not been recorded so far.
Various species of mosquito can spread Rift Valley Fever and these differ from one region to another. Environment changes, (especially rainfall), are considered among the important risk factor for outbreaks within people and animals both. Rift Valley Fever is basically noticed in times of unusually heavy rainfall as well as in localized flooding. The transmission cycle of Rift Valley Fever Virus is as follows:
The Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) is spread from female mosquitoes to the offspring via the eggs (also known as vertical transmission).
In the eggs of infected mosquitoes, the Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) stays in viable or infectious for several years in times of dry states. Excessive rainfall accelerates this condition and enables more mosquito eggs to get infected. With the enhancement of the mosquito populations, the potential of virus development to the animals as well as human beings also get enhanced.
Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) outbreaks in many people and most specifically livestock that results in enhancement of infected animals that eventually increases the exposure risk of virus for human beings.
Rift Valley Fever- Signs and Symptoms
Rift Valley Fever Virus or RVFV hosts an incubation period of the duration of 2-6 days after infection of RVF occurs and it can cause multiple different disease syndromes. It has been observed that individuals, affected by RVF, don’t notice any symptoms or notice a mild illness linked to fever as well as the liver abnormalities. Patients, who experience illness, basically undergo fever, normal weakness, dizziness, and back pain during the starting phase of the illness. Usually, patients start recovery in the duration of days to one week following the beginning of the illness.
It is very important to consult a doctor in case of Rift Valley Fever (RVF).